Headshot Lighting

Flat.

  • light aimed directly at the subject (in front of)
  • have the light source just above the camera

Butterfly

  • light directly in front & above
  • try placing a reflector horizontally on the subject’s lap to make shadows less harsh (silver or white side up)

Rembrandt

  • light above & angled down
  • it should leave one side of the face almost in shadow except for a triangular shape of light on the cheekbone
  • use this lighting for dramatic shots

Split

  • subject is lit from the side
  • resulting in only half the face being lit with the other half in shadow
  • this technique is used more for athletes etc. as it’s good at showing off ab muscles for example

 

Wind turbine flower

Wind turbine flower, moorland, energy

Scout Moor wind farm located just outside Rochdale in Lancashire, is the second largest onshore wind farm in England. Love them or loathe them, these wind turbines dominate the horizon in the surrounding areas. It was while walking around here recently, I decided to see if I could create something a little more aesthetically pleasing out of them & this is the result.

This image is the combination of six separate photographs taken using “continuous shooting” mode. Once they’re uploaded onto the computer open them all in ACR & click “select all” so that any alterations you make apply to every photo. Now open them in Elements & start combining them. To do this select the Move tool, hold down “Shift” & click the image you want to move dragging it onto the background image. This should create a new layer. Quickly check the alignment of this new layer by clicking its eye icon to hide & reveal it. If any movement has occured, reduce its opacity & use the Move tool to re-align it. With the opacity back to 100% (& the new layer selected) hold down Alt & click the Add Layer Mask icon. This adds a ‘hide all’ layer mask so you can only see the background image. Now select the Brush tool & with a soft edged brush (ensuring the foreground colour is white) paint the additional turbine blades in. Repeat these stages for each photo in the set until you have the completed image.

Panoramic photographs

Taking the photographs.

A tripod is essential here as you want to keep the horizon in the final image level. Ensure the tripod head is level using a hotshoe spirit level or maybe your tripod already has one built in? Also, mount the camera in portrait format to maximise the resolution of the final image.

Take a test shot of an average part of the scene ie. not the darkest or lightest, with your polariser off if you normally have one on. If, after checking the histogram, the exposure looks OK switch to manual mode & dial in these settings. In addition, change the WB to “daylight”.

Ensuring you have an aperture providing sufficient DoF to leave everything in focus (f/8 – f/11 is often fine) hold your hand in front of the lens pointing in the direction you’re going to shoot. This will usually be left as for most people it’s easier to shoot left to right. Begin taking pictures with a 30-40% overlap (this enables the software to stitch them together easier later on). After the last image, take another with your hand in front of the lens but pointing right this time. Now you’ll have a clear sequence of images to link together when you get home.

Stitching the images together.

In Photoshop Elements 12 open all the files in ACR. “Select All” so that any adjustments you make apply to all the images. Now save them as jpegs & place them in a folder somewhere easy to find. Go to Enhance>Photomerge Panorama in the photo editor, leave as “Auto” or try a different style as you please & browse to locate the files you’ve just edited. Highlight them all & click “OK”. Elements will now do its thing (which may take a while depending on how many images you took in the first place). Once complete, you’ll probably get a message asking you to clean the edges. Either click “Yes” for the computer to fill in the blank areas or, “No” to crop the stitched image yourself. If you went for the computer option you may find you need to tidy up the corners. If this is the case, use the lasso tool to ring the bits that look wrong & then “Ctrl + Alt” to grab a section of the picture & bring it down ontop of the area to be fixed. “Esc” to get rid of the Lasso.

Finally, the new stitched image will be huge so Layers>Flatten image before saving.

NB. If you’re using the latest version of Lightroom or Photoshop CC you can stitch directly from ACR. Click the filmstrip & select “Merge to Panorama”, choose your style & click “Merge”.

The Lasso Tool

There are three versions of the lasso tool:

  1. regular
  2. polygonal
  3. magnetic

Tip: “Ctrl & D” gets rid of the lasso tool selection.

The regular lasso tool is good for creating irregular patterns or shapes. Anything you want to draw freehand eg. a puddle on the floor.

The polygonal lasso tool (as the name suggests) is best for creating polygons. If you hold down “Alt” while using this tool though it reverts to the regular lasso tool (ideal for shapes that may have three straight sides & then a wavy fourth for example).

Tip: “Backspace” will get rid of the last click of the lasso tool without having to start all over again.

The magnetic lasso tool is used for tracing around objects. There are three adjustable controls within this lasso tool. Increasing the “frequency” will create more points around the object. However, too many can make the selection become jagged (50-60 is probably a good amount). The “width” setting dictates how far you can move the cursor from the edge of the object & still attach a point. It’s a good idea not to have this set too low. Finally, the “contrast” setting sets how much leniency you have from where you click & where the computer thinks you should put the point. A low value will place it exactly where it thinks the line should go (hence, a slightly higher value is preferable).

Once you have your selection you could add an adjustment layer & change the objects colour.

Smoke trails

A smoke trail portrait

After reading an article by Caroline Schmidt in January 2016’s edition of “Digital SLR Photography” magazine I was keen to attempt this technique. It’s fairly simple to do & although it can be somewhat hit or miss during the photography stage, the editing side is very easy.

Set up. Ensuring you have a black background (a cloth or as I used, sheets of black cardboard) place the incense stick & tray at least two to three feet in front. With your camera on a tripod, shoot in RAW, in Manual mode with ISO 200, shutter speed of one second & aperture f/8 to start with. If you find the smoke drifts towards the camera you may need to adjust the aperture to keep it all in focus. Place the flash gun behind & slightly lower than the incense stick. Make sure none of the flash illuminates the backdrop or hits the lens. With the room lights on, use single-shot AF to focus on the tip of the incense stick before switching to manual focus to prevent the camera from hunting. Now recompose the shot so the incense stick is out of the frame. Turn off the room lights & shoot away.

Editing. Open the image in Adobe Camera Raw & increase the “Clarity” slider to draw out the detail. Next increase the “Highlights” & “Whites” sliders before decreasing the “Blacks” & “Shadows” sliders until you’re happy with the contrast. Don’t worry if the image turns blue due to the ‘clipping warning function’ as there is no detail in the black backdrop anyway. To colour, create a new layer (Layer>New), set the blend mode to Color & use the brush tool to paint the smoke trail in your chosen colour. Adjust the Opacity of the layer to obtain the desired effect. You can add additional layers with different opacities if you wish.

 

Week 52

Settings: f/2.8, 1/15 second, ISO 100, 50mm prime

Set up. Open a cookbook near the middle & turn two pages in on themselves to create a heart shape. Arrange various baking props around the book. The camera was placed on a tripod.

Opinion. I have seen numerous pictures similar to this one however, the background is usually quite plain to emphasise the shape created. I wondered if it would work with props in order to create an “I love baking” message.

Week 51

Settings: f/10, 1/20 second, ISO 100, 21mm

Set up. I placed my camera on the pier to get the low point of view. After experimenting with various exposure compensation settings I opted for an HDR image in an attempt to get more detail in the sky.

Opinion. Continuing my project with Cyril the cyberman, I found this bent lamp post sculpture on the harbour front in Halifax, Nova Scotia & thought it would make an interesting composition. The idea was to try to make it look as though Cyril had bent the posts himself using some strange cyberman power. I’m not sure it entirely works due to him standing so far infront of the lamp posts & with his back to them. But the original premise is sound.

Week 50: How to do a head swap – the easy way.

Open both images. Go to the image with the head you wish to keep. Duplicate the layer (Ctrl J) & use the “quick selection” tool to select the head. Edit>Copy.

Now open the image with the body in it & Edit>Paste. Click on the “move” tool to position the head. Ctrl T (transform image) will let you adjust the size of the head until it looks similar. You may want to decrease the opacity of the head layer in order to match the face below as accurately as possible. Click the tick to confirm once you’re satisfied.

Ensuring the head layer is highlighted you could use the “eraser” tool to rub out any untidy bits around the head eg. the neckline. However, a less destructive way to achieve the same result is to add a layer mask Layer>Layer Mask, ensure the foreground colour is black & use the brush tool to erase any bits (this way if you erase too much you can turn the foreground colour to white & paint them back in). Next, to help blend the two images together alter the opacity of the eraser to about 12% & using a soft brush, go around the entire head to feather the edges.

If you need to match the skin tone a little better, again with the head layer highlighted, go to “hue/saturation” & alter these settings until you get the desired effect. You could also use the “curves” adjustment after this step if you have the full PS software.

Week 48

Settings: f/16, 20 seconds, ISO 100, 35mm focal length

Set up. With the camera on a tripod positioned on a bridge over the motorway. Turn IS off, mirror lock on, focus a third of the way into the frame & then switch AF off. Keep the ISO low & in TV mode have the shutter open for as long as it takes the cars to enter & exit the frame. You may require exposure compensation depending upon how light the resulting image is. I also used the 2 second shutter delay function to avoid any camera shake.

Opinion. I’ve been wanting to try this for a while. Winter is definitely the prefered time of year to attempt this technique as the short days mean you can coincide the sun setting with peak traffic times. I like the effect of the car indicating to come off the motorway resulting in dashed yellow lights on the left of the red trail.